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Pong on the Mojo Revisited

 FPGA  electronics  programming

In my previous post, I briefly discussed the implementation of a pseudo-pong game on my Mojo FPGA developer board.

I was able to implement the VHDL version that I linked to later in the post and it works much better.

The biggest challenge I had with it was converting the two-button input to a potentiometer input. It turns out all I had to do was convert an array to an integer as input to the paddle's left position.

Here is a link to the article describing the implementation that I used:

FPGA Pong From FPGACenter.com.

The VHDL was a big challenge for me because I had to learn it as I went along. It works just like Verilog, but the syntax is so different.

Also, I modified my User Constraints File to make the RGB an array for compatibility with this particular implementation.

Here are the new custom constraints:

NET "hsync" LOC = P50 | IOSTANDARD = LVTTL;  
NET "vsync" LOC = P51 | IOSTANDARD = LVTTL;  
NET "rgb<2>" LOC = P41 | IOSTANDARD = LVTTL;  
NET "rgb<1>" LOC = P40 | IOSTANDARD = LVTTL;  
NET "rgb<0>" LOC = P35 | IOSTANDARD = LVTTL;

Here is the code containing my changes (in the vga_control and img_gen modules):

vga_control:

library IEEE;  
use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;  
use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_UNSIGNED.ALL;

entity vga_control is  
     Port ( clk : in STD_LOGIC;
                start : in STD_LOGIC;
                reset : in STD_LOGIC;
                paddle : IN STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(9 downto 0);
                rgb : out STD_LOGIC_VECTOR (2 downto 0);
                h_s : out STD_LOGIC;
                v_s : out STD_LOGIC);
end vga_control;

architecture Behavioral of vga_control is

COMPONENT img_gen  
       PORT( clk : IN std_logic;
                     x_control : IN std_logic_vector(9 downto 0);
                     paddle : IN std_logic_vector(9 downto 0);
                     y_control : IN std_logic_vector(9 downto 0);
                     video_on : IN std_logic; 
                     rgb : OUT std_logic_vector(2 downto 0) );
END COMPONENT;

COMPONENT sync_mod  
       PORT( clk : IN std_logic;
                     reset : IN std_logic;
                     start : IN std_logic; 
                     y_control : OUT std_logic_vector(9 downto 0);
                     x_control : OUT std_logic_vector(9 downto 0);
                     h_s : OUT std_logic;
                     v_s : OUT std_logic;
                     video_on : OUT std_logic );
END COMPONENT;

signal x,y:std_logic_vector(9 downto 0);  
signal video:std_logic;

begin  
          U1: img_gen PORT MAP( clk =>clk , x_control => x, paddle => paddle , 
                                                         y_control => y, video_on =>video , rgb => rgb );

           U2: sync_mod PORT MAP( clk => clk, reset => reset, start => start, y_control => y, x_control =>x ,
                                                             h_s => h_s , v_s => v_s, video_on =>video );
end Behavioral;

My changes are on lines 9, 20, and 41. This sends the output from the potentiometer hooked up to the ADC on the Mojo to the img_gen module where it's converted to position data for the paddle control.

Here's the modified img_gen code:

library IEEE;  
use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_1164.ALL;  
use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_ARITH.ALL;  
use IEEE.STD_LOGIC_UNSIGNED.ALL;


entity img_gen is  
     Port ( clk : in STD_LOGIC;
                x_control : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(9 downto 0);
                paddle : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(9 downto 0);
                y_control : in STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(9 downto 0);
                video_on : in STD_LOGIC;
                rgb : out STD_LOGIC_VECTOR(2 downto 0));
end img_gen;

architecture Behavioral of img_gen is

--wall
constant wall_l:integer :=10;--the distance between wall and left side of screen  
constant wall_t:integer :=10;--the distance between wall and top side of screen  
constant wall_k:integer :=10;--wall thickness  
signal wall_on:std_logic;  
signal rgb_wall:std_logic_vector(2 downto 0); 

--bar
signal bar_l, bar_l_next: integer:=100;  
constant bar_t:integer :=420;--the distance between bar and top side of screen  
constant bar_k:integer :=10;--bar thickness  
constant bar_w:integer:=120;--bar width  
constant bar_v:integer:=10;--velocity of the bar  
signal bar_on:std_logic;  
signal rgb_bar:std_logic_vector(2 downto 0); 

--ball
signal ball_l,ball_l_next:integer :=100;--the distance between ball and left side of screen  
signal ball_t,ball_t_next:integer :=100; --the distance between ball and top side of screen  
constant ball_w:integer :=20;--ball Height  
constant ball_u:integer :=20;--ball width  
constant x_v,y_v:integer:=3;-- horizontal and vertical speeds of the ball  
signal ball_on:std_logic;  
signal rgb_ball:std_logic_vector(2 downto 0); 

--refreshing(1/60)
signal refresh_reg,refresh_next:integer;  
constant refresh_constant:integer:=830000;  
signal refresh_tick:std_logic;

--ball animation
signal xv_reg,xv_next:integer:=3;--variable of the horizontal speed  
signal yv_reg,yv_next:integer:=3;--variable of the vertical speed

--x,y pixel cursor
signal x,y:integer range 0 to 650;

--mux
signal vdbt:std_logic_vector(3 downto 0);

--buffer
signal rgb_reg,rgb_next:std_logic_vector(2 downto 0);

begin

--x,y pixel cursor
x <= conv_integer(x_control);  
y <= conv_integer(y_control );

--refreshing
process(clk)  
begin  
     if clk'event and clk='1' then
          refresh_reg<=refresh_next; 
     end if;
end process;  
refresh_next <= 0 when refresh_reg= refresh_constant else  
refresh_reg+1;  
refresh_tick <= '1' when refresh_reg = 0 else  
                           '0';
--register part
process(clk)  
begin  
     if clk'event and clk='1' then
         ball_l <= ball_l_next;
         ball_t <= ball_t_next;
         xv_reg <= xv_next;
         yv_reg <= yv_next;
         bar_l <= bar_l_next;
      end if;
end process;

--bar animation
process(refresh_tick,paddle)  
begin

    if refresh_tick= '1' then
       bar_l_next <= conv_integer(paddle);
    end if;
end process;

--ball animation
process(refresh_tick,ball_l,ball_t,xv_reg,yv_reg)  
begin  
     ball_l_next <=ball_l;
     ball_t_next <=ball_t;
     xv_next <= xv_reg;
     yv_next <= yv_reg;
     if refresh_tick = '1' then
        if ball_t > 400 and ball_l > (bar_l -ball_u) and ball_l < (bar_l +120) then --the ball hits the bar
           yv_next <= -y_v ;
       elsif ball_t < 35 then--The ball hits the wall
           yv_next <= y_v;
       end if;
       if ball_l < 10 then --The ball hits the left side of the screen
          xv_next <= x_v;
       elsif ball_l> 600 then 
          xv_next <= -x_v ; --The ball hits the right side of the screen
       end if; 
       ball_l_next <= ball_l + xv_reg;
       ball_t_next <= ball_t + yv_reg; 
    end if;
end process;

--wall object
wall_on <= '1' when x > wall_l and x < (640-wall_l) and y> wall_t and y < (wall_t+ wall_k) else  
                      '0'; 
rgb_wall <= "000";--Black  
--bar object
bar_on <= '1' when x > bar_l and x < (bar_l+bar_w) and y> bar_t and y < (bar_t+ bar_k) else  
                    '0'; 
rgb_bar <= "001";--blue

--ball object
ball_on <= '1' when x > ball_l and x < (ball_l+ball_u) and y> ball_t and y < (ball_t+ ball_w) else  
                     '0'; 
rgb_ball <= "010"; --Green

--buffer
process(clk)  
begin  
     if clk'event and clk = '1' then
         rgb_reg <= rgb_next;
     end if;
end process;

--mux
vdbt<=video_on & wall_on & bar_on &ball_on;  
with vdbt select  
     rgb_next <= "100" when "1000",--Background of the screen is red 
     rgb_wall when "1100",
     rgb_wall when "1101",
     rgb_bar when "1010",
     rgb_bar when "1011",
     rgb_ball when "1001",
      "000" when others;
--output
rgb <= rgb_reg;

end Behavioral;

My changes are on lines 10 and 95 to make the potentiometer control the paddle.